Listen to part of lecture in an archeology class. (考古学)
OK, we've been talking about early agriculture in the
newest near east. So let's concentrate on one side site, and see what we can learn from it. That's OK, chattle huyok. Let's look at Catalhoyuk. Ah... Um...I'd better write it that down. ChattleHooyork Catalhoyuk, that's about the closest as close as we get in English. It's turkeshi Turkish really ?. The sights sites in monterday modern day Turkey, and who knows was what the original one habitance called inhabitants called it.
um...chattlehooyook uh...Catalhoyuk wasn't the first agriculture agricultural settlement in the near east, but it was pretty early. Settled about 9000 years ago, in the naillific Neolithic period. And, um... the settlement, a ah... town, really, lasted about a 1000 years, and grew to a size of about 8 or 10 thousand s people. That certainly makes it a one of the largest town s in the world at that time.
One of the things that make
s the settlement of this sigins size impressive is the town time period. It's the nilllefic Neolithic, remember, the late stone age. So the people that lived there had only stone tools. No matter of all no metals. So everything they acomlished accomplished, like building this tone town, they did put with just stone, plus wood, bricks that's all the thing. that sort of thing.
But you got to remember that it wasn't just any stone they had, they had
obcidean obsidian. And,um..., obcidean obsidian is a black, volcanic,well, almost like glass. It flakes very nicely into really sharp points. The sharp is sharpest tools of the entire Stone Age was were made of obcidean obsidian. And um... the people of ChattleHooyork Catalhoyuk, got theirs from or there enland further inland, from central Turkey, traded for it them, probably.
Anyway, what I
want to wanna focus on, is the way the town was built. The houses is always tengler are all rectangular, one story storey made of sunstrike breaks sun dried bricks. But what's was really interesting is that there are no spaces between them. No streets in other words. And so generally, no doors on the houses either. People walked around on the roofs, and enter the house through a hatch way on the roof, down load wood loader. You can still see the diagolow diagonal marks on of the ladders in the plaster on the inside walls. One sure Once you were in the house, there would be one main room, and a couple of small rooms for storage. The main room had the hurth hearths, for cooking and for heat. It would've been pretty cold during the winters. And that it also looks like they made their tools near the fire. But, no chemely, they are There tends to be a lot of absedean obsidian flakes and chips in the half antious hearth ashes. but no chimney.
The smoke just went out the same
hatch way hatchway the people used for going into in and out themselves. So, there would have been beem an open fire insight inside the house with only one hole in the roof to let the smoke out. You and I would have found it a bit too smoky in there. You can see in on the walls, which they plastered and decarated with paintings. They end up with a layer of black teddom soot on them, and so did people's lawns lungs. The born's bones found in the graves, show a layer of third soot on the insight inside of the ribs. And that's another unusal feature of ChattleHooyork Catalhoyuk, the berial sights. burial sites.
??? graves have all been found under the houses, right under the floors. And it maybe this bareal burial custom that expains why the houses was were packed in so tightly without streets. I mean, you might think it was for protection of something, but there 's has been no evidence found yet of any vilote violent attack that would indicate that kind of danger. And may be they wanted to live as near est as possible to their ???'s ancestors graves, and be very buried near them themselves. But it makes a good point.
next divisions excavations, we can lay out know the layout of the houses, and the location of the graves, but we're only guessing when we tried to say why they did that way. That's the way it is our giology with archeology. Your are dealing with the physical remainings the remains that people left behind. We have no sure access to what they thought and how they felt about things. I mean, it's interesting the specluate speculate. And the physical art facts artifacts can give us clues, but there's a lot we cannot really know.
So, for instance, their art. They painted on the plastered walls and usually they painted huntings scenes with wild animals in them. Now they did hunt, and they also
raise serial raised cereal crops and kept club can cap sheep, but, we don't know why so many of paintings are of hunting things scenes. Was it supposed to have religious so or magical significance? That's kind of the thing we can only gusess that, at based on clues. And hopefully, for their further exacvation excavation of ChattleHooyork Catalhoyuk will ill yield more clues. But, more we'll probably never know for sure.
What is the lecture mainly about?
Art in the Neolithic period.
√The site of a Neolithic town.
Methods of making stone tools.
The domestication of plants and animals by early farmers .
What does the professor imply about the tools used by the people of Catalhoyuk?
They were made of stone that came from Catalhoyuk.
√They were among the sharpest tools available at the time.
They were often used in religious rituals.
They were used primarily for agriculture.
What does the professor say about the entrances to the houses in Catalhoyuk?
Click on 2 answers
√They were in the roof.
They were usually kept closed.
√They allowed smoke to escape from the houses.
They stood opposite one another across narrow streets.
What does the professor say about Catalhoyuk graves?
The graves contained precious stones.
Many people were buried in each grave.
√The graves were located under the house floors.
The graves contained ashes rather than bones.
What does the professor think of the idea that the inhabitants of Catahoyuk deliberately aranged their cuses so that they could live near taeir ancestors graves?
√She thinks it is a good guess, but only a guess.
She thinks some evidence supports it, but other evidence contradicts it.
She thinks that further excavation will soon disprove it.
She thinks that it is not appropriate to make such guesses about the distant past.
what are three things the professor says about the artwork of Catalhoyuk?
Click on 3 answers
lt was clearly important to the Catalhoyuk religion.
√lt became covered with soot.
lt often show farmers at work.
√lts significance is unknown.
√lt contains many hunting scenes.
- near east 近东
- Let's look at Catalhoyuk. (我听成了That'sOK)
- sites 现场（我是没想到她会说site）（一般site指website）（我也没想到有别的意思）
- inhabitants 居民（100%听不出来，假如你不熟悉这个话题的话）
- further inland 更内陆
- Once you were (我听成了One sure)
- soot on them （这个连读真的不可能听出来）
- lungs 肺（不是不认识，是想不到）
- burial sites 墓地
- burial 埋葬
- ancestors 祖先
- excavations 挖掘
- obsidian 黑曜石 （你会去背黑曜石这个单词，才是离谱）（黑曜岩，又名黑曜石或十胜石，是一种自然产生的玻璃）
- grave 坟墓 （考古学，一定要背的单词）
- inhabitants 居民（猜不到什么意思，这个单词得单独记忆）
- settlement 定居点（定居点的含义，还是第一次见到）
- Neolithic 新时期时代（这个你怎么可能认识嘛）(好吧，虽然后面还解释了，the late stone age）
- impressive 令人印象深刻（写出来了，但是不知道什么意思）
- metal 金属
- volcanic 火山产生的
- flake 薄片 （听出来了，但是不知道什么意思）
- central 中央
- are all rectangular 都是矩形（shaped like rectangles）
- storey 层
- hearths 炉膛（我觉得应该是特指 壁炉）
- chimney 烟囱
- plastered 抹灰 （plaster本身是石膏的意思）（作动词来讲的话，这里是指涂抹灰、石灰、膏之类的东西）
- soot 煤烟、煤灰（因为烟本身也是固定颗粒，准确来说，称之为灰也没问题）
- rib 肋骨 （好家伙，我tm直接好家伙）
- archeology 考古学
- speculate 推测
- artifacts 文物
- cereal 谷类
- crops 庄稼，作物
- agricultural 农业的
- settlement 定居点
- no metals 没有金属 （metal已经忘了是什么东西了，虽然听出来了）
- further inland 更内陆
- wanna (means want to) （非常口语化的表达方式）
- storey 层（也许是地道的表达方式，但是这个单词第一次见）
- generally 普遍的（这里是普遍的意思）
- Once you were in the house （也许这个表达方式挺常见的，不然第一反应应该不是once you were）
- So, for instance 相当于like，such as （for instance其实用得也挺多的）
- further 更进一步 （我老是听成for more，或者说我第一印象根本不会想到further，但，这是个挺常见的表达）
- yield more clues 产生更多线索
- yield 产量、出产、提供、屈服、让步 （我所在意的是，C#好像有个关键字就是yield，是个语法糖）