Listen to part of a lecture in a theater history class. The class is discussing 18th century plays in Europe and the United States.
Iefar, by far, the most popular journal genre replace of plays during the 18th century was the centimetal sentimental comedy. Now, in order to, so to sort of get our heads around what centimetal a sentimental comedy is, where it came from and why they on Earth it was are so popular, we need to understand what centimetal sentimentality comedy was , as a philisophical philosophical movement.
So, during the 18th century, some
figures thinkers, philosophers, polotical fairest political theorists, came up with this idea of centimentality sentimentality. The main point of in centimentality sentimentality is that, people are inharitantly inherently good, people are good by nature. In the past, and other times, some people have had believed our or claimed that ??? men and women are naturally selfish or naturally evil. During the 17th century, there was a very popular theory known as a the social contract, set up by figures thinkers like Tomas Thomas hubs Hobbes, which argued are heard that people are naturally selfish. During the 18th century, on the other hand, thinkers associated with centimentality sentimentality came along and said, no! no! no! People are naturally good. Yes, Diana Diane,Question.
Yeah, sorry to interrupt, but, why was it called that the first one, umm, the social contract, why was it called that?
, I mean, if people are supposed to be naturally selfish, isn't that the opposite would of being social.
ephasis emphasis was more on the contract part. And, if people are naturally inclined to do what's in their own self interest, then they're ordered in order to have people living together in piece peace, you need to develop some kind of a social contract, a sort of gradement agreement. I won't hit you over the head to and take your stuff, if you don't hit me over the head to and take my stuff. But in the 18th century, the centimental sentimental theorists fair came along, and said the that people are naturally good.
Hmm（听起来是嘲讽的语气）, hard to believe sometimes if you watch the evening news.
Okay, if you try to argue that
the people are naturally good, you gonna you're going to have to anwser the question: What about the fact the bad things happen? How do we accomfort account for the fact to that people do bad things? Centimental Sentimental fairist theorists claim that evil did deeds happen because people are led straight astray by bad influences. That is, people can be pressured, or soduced seduced, or tripped tricked into doing something wrong. And, the other question that comes up in relation to centimentality sentimentality is: if you are led straight astray, how can you be redeem redeemed? Can you be brought back to your state of natural goodness? What do you think?
I think, yeah, if you think people are basically good, then you probably also think they can be, you know, brought back to being in good again.
That's right. And they said you do this by appealing to a person's natural instincts. Trying to return them all or connect them to their natural state,
is especially via via the motions. Making someone cry, then could, make them good again.
Ummm, picture for example, the evil
Vilian Villain, somking smirking at the his latest robbory robbery, inface in fact, who haves happens to seem to see a lost child walking down the streets, sobbing. And he starts to sniffily sniffle and cry crying, and maybe his heart goes out to this lost child, and he wants to help the child and somehow he realizes that he's been bad or rather been behaving badly, somes since according to the centimentals sentimentalist , there theory he was not never truly bad to begin with. Alright, that's sort of halwmark hallmark that sentiment of sentimentality comedy and what it's what became the driven driving force behind centimental sentimental comedies.
care get why they are comdies? They don't sound funny.
Ascentimental a sentimental comedy is not specifically funny. The goal is isn't to make the audience laugh, and in fact, the goals is to make the audience cry. That's Thus a centimental sentimental comedy will usually depict someone virtualist virtuous, but in some short of disdress distress. Ummm, perhaps a good virtualist virtuous manner man or woman who's suffering finacial financial hardships, and we see them desparte desperate for food, barely able to survive . Temp tempted to rob someone. But they resist that temptation, and steal trian still triumph in the end. And again, seeing this, the audience is expected to cry, and thus reconnect with their natural emotional state.
这篇听力主要是介绍了一种 伤感类型戏剧 形成的原因和过程，以及为什么会以戏剧这种形式展现出来。
replaceof plays （听起来太像）
- thinkers 思想家（第一次见到er形式）
???men and women are
- genre 类型 （并非真的不认识）（只是没想到会出现在口语里面）
- sentimental 感伤的
- sentimentality 感伤；感伤癖（我觉得这里大概是 感伤癖）
- philosophical 哲学的
- philosophical movement 哲学运动
- philosophers 哲学家
- inherently 固有地
- social contract 社会契约（这里是指 社会约定俗成的东西，比如“人性本恶”这一理念）
- emphasis 重点
- inclined 倾向于
- sentimental theorists 感性理论家
- deeds 事迹
- astray 误入歧途
- influences 影响
- seduced 引诱
- tricked 被骗
- redeem 赎回；救赎（这个地方特指 救赎）
- instincts 本能
- via 通过
- Villain 恶棍
- smirking 傻笑
- sobbing 抽泣
- sniffle 嗅
- sentimentalist 前卫主义
- hallmark 标志
- sentimental comedies 感性喜剧
- virtuous 有道德的；贤；善
- distress 苦恼
- financial hardships 财务困难
- desperate 绝望的
- tempted to 试图（这个试图去做某事，是有被诱惑，被蛊惑的成分在里面的）
- temptation 诱惑
- triumph 巨大成功
- by far 到目前为止
- get our heads around 弄清楚（Google翻译是“振作起来”，感觉不对劲，我觉得这里是understand的意思）
- movement 运动（特指像文艺复兴时期那样的运动）（听力材料里面很常见）（一般来讲就是指 巨大的历史事件 一样的东西）
- if people are supposed to be naturally selfish, isn't that the opposite of being social. 如果人们天生自私，那不是社交的对立面吗。
- stuff 东西（之前几篇听力已经出现过了）（口语里挺常用的）
- I won't hit you over the head and take your stuff, if you don't hit me over the head and take my stuff. （简而言之“你不犯我，我不犯你”）（这是基本的契约精神）
- appealing to a person's natural instincts 吸引人的本能
- Thus 从而（承接上面所说的内容，自然而然地引出下一部分）
- fundamental objective of ……的基本目标