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托福备考第14天——TPO听力材料精听分析(二阶段)(六)

上一篇:托福备考第13天——TPO听力材料精听分析(二阶段)(五)

 

这份听力听了四分之一实在听不下去了,

对于出题者来说,多数考生没有考试材料的背景信息,题目才算比较公平,所以许多学术背景的听力材料都会选择千奇百怪的知识点作为主题。

考试并不希望考生understood before listening,但考生应该understood after listening。

我确定这篇材料是完全不认识的,它讨论的主题我完全不熟悉,大概也有单词不认识。

所以剩下的3/4都是直接抄写。(不过标明了生词)

听写并纠错后的结果:

Listen to part of lecture in a United States history Class.

I'd like to talk today about an important period  paradigm on in the history of United States, and I will came to be how it came to be changed a pony upon a second look.

In 1893, an eminent  American story historian by the name of fagrate tason Frederick Jackson Turner delived a lecture as the American Historical Association and his lecture was entitled "The significance of front here frontier in the American history".

Now, when he was talking about the frontier, he was referring to the part of american was, west that wasn't get yet settled.

The point turn remade Turner made in his lecture was that the 18, 19 US-senses 1890 US census hava provided new data about settlement, and both those data showed that well, there was no longer a frontier. This disappearance of frontier themptin seem to him tremendeously tremendously significant and prounpit prompted him to together gather ideas about how the funtier frontier mind of shaped the might have shaped American history and the American character.

Ternal sergit Turner asserted that the existence of frontier with cheaper or virtually free land for the taking available for individuals to sort of try their luck tended to promote certain ideals that were central to the American character. Ideals of economic self-sufficiency, individualism, political independence, small town democracy, suspicion of large government, things like that. He saw these things being really shaped by the economic and social conditions of the frontier and, for Turner, the end of the frontier in 1890 meant the end of this particular era of American character and that Americans would become less individualistic, less independent minded. 他看到这些事情实际上是由边境的经济和社会条件所塑造的,而且对于特纳来说,1890年边境的终结意味着这一美国特色时代的终结,美国人将变得个人主义程度下降,思想独立性下降。

And the frontier thesis was pretty much THE accept paradigm of the history of the American west, until the 1970s. 直到1970年代,前沿论文几乎都是美国西部历史的接受范式。 Then for a variety of reasons, historians studying the American west began to question this thesis and ultimately, many of them ended up pretty much turning it on its head. 然后由于种种原因,研究美国西部的历史学家开始质疑这一论点,最终,他们中的许多人最终将其转为颠倒。

And this what fascinates me about this debate. The change that happened was not so much a matter of people finding new evidence that hadn't been available to Turner, it was more a question of people looking at the same evidence with a different eye, with different emphases.

There are two main areas of challenge to Turner that arose in what's been called "The new western history".

One was that Turner tended to over-emphasize the importance of Americans of European decent on the western frontier. This was somewhat of an unconscious bias on his part, but you know, if you look at Turner's picture of the frontier, it was basically white men from Europe who set the tone and define the culture.

New western historians took another look at the west and realize that it was actually a pretty culturally diverse place. You had obviously American Indians, Mexicans, Chinese and others. So, so the cultural uniformity of the frontier that Turner saw, the new western historians look at it and see something very very different.

The other main area of challenge by new western historians was that Turner really, in their view, really underestimated the role of the federal government and large corporations in shaping the economic life of the frontier. I mean, just as a for instance, the federal government to this day, is the largest land owner west of the Mississippi River and people's lives when they got to the frontier were really dictated by market force beyond, pretty much, beyond their control. You know, you grew wheat you exported it to Europe and whether you prospered or not depended at least partly on the price of wheat which you had relatively little control over.

So these two main areas of challenge result in a very different picture of the western frontier. The new western historians see a culturally diverse place, a place where people weren't really in charge of their destiny even before the end of the frontier. People, you know, their destinies were controlled by large impersonal forces. Federal policy, changes in the prices of agricultural products, things like that.

For Turner, the end of the availability of cheap land marks a crucial change in United States history. But for the new western historians, it's really more of the same, a continuation of the same kind of conflicts that had gone on in the days before the so-called closing of the frontier. So, again, as I say, it's so interesting because it's a case of a shift in perception rather than a shift in the uderlying evidence that guided the initial perception.

弗雷德里克·杰克逊·特纳,如果你了解这个美国历史学家,你做这篇听力就会非常简单。但是如我之前所说的,“考试并不希望考生understood before listening,考生应该understood after listening”,那么对于单词“frontier”,如果你只背了“前沿”这个意思,那基本听不懂。我知道有部分人可能下意识认为,“边境”难道不是“border”吗?事实上,并不是这样。

border和frontier区别在于:

border是指自然地理现象形成了天然分界线,它不是人为的,而且在使用方面,border经常会代指装饰。

侧重点不同:

  • border: 多指国与国之间或两地区的分界处,即分界线附近的边缘部分。
  • boundary: 侧重地图上正式标定的、双方遵守的边界,也可指较小行政单位间的界线。
  • frontier: 指两国接壤的前沿地区,属于各国的国境和边疆,多指设防的边界。

而美国历史课上提到frontier那就只有一种可能性——(特指19世纪美国西部的)开发地区边缘地带。

可能中文里面,经常用“前沿”这个词,但是英文听力材料里面很少提frontier代指技术、科学前沿的情况(至少我听到的材料里面没有)。

Turner asserted that the existence of frontier with cheaper or virtually free land for the taking available for individuals to sort of try their luck tended to promote certain ideals that were central to the American character.

Turner断言,正是这种几乎免费的可获得的土地(给个人),以及这种模糊边境概念(特指west American),使得那些撞运气的人以及各种思绪,促进形成了这样的“美国性格”。然后又继续说:

Ideals of economic self-sufficiency, individualism, political independence, small town democracy, suspicion of large government, things like that.

经济自给自足,个人主义,政治独立,小城镇民主,对大政府的怀疑之类的ideal

ideal 看似完美的思想(或标准);

特别说一下ideal,这里不能理解为理想。ideal在这里特指看似完美的思想,比如个人主义、小城镇民主等等。结论而言,ideal在代表“看似完美的思想(或标准)”的时候还是挺多的。

perception 这个单词反而不能直接理解为“洞察力”,它是指the ability to understand the true nature of sth

perception在这里,特指一种看法,an idea, a belief or an image you have as a result of how you see or understand sth

所以,最后一句

So, again, as l say, its so interesting because its a case of a shift in perception rather than a shift in the underlying evidence that guided the initial perception.

因此,正如我所说,它是如此有趣,因为它是一种观念转变的案例,而不是指导初始观念的基础证据的转变。

阐明了一点“这之所以很有趣,是因为这不是一次基于潜在证据而改变看法的案例,而是基于对现存证据不同眼光和不同强调而导致的观念转变 ”。

Turner的理论特别强调个人力量的可控性,个人能够主宰命运,甚至能影响联邦政府、影响经济;但新西部历史学家认为,联邦政府的影响是很大的,大多数个人是无法掌控自己的命运的。

不容易听出来单词和短语:

  • I will came to be how it came to be (这个真的能听陈 I will)
  • a pony upon a
  • story historian 历史学家 (这个H我就没听出来)(可以说这次听力真的差了)
  • front here frontier
  • was, west
  • themptin seem to him

不认识的单词:

  • paradigm 范例 (paradigm (范式)= philosophy (理念) + methods (方法)=主流认为什么事该做+方式+方法)
  • eminent  杰出
  • Frederick Jackson Turner 弗雷德里克·杰克逊·特纳 (这个人的名字是出乎我意料的)(居然有3个单词)(所以我后来我就根本不懂Turner是个什么东西)
  • entitled 有资格
  • American Historical Association 美国历史协会
  • The significance of frontier in the American history 边境在美国历史中的意义
  • frontier 边境;(尤指19世纪美国西部的)开发地区边缘地带,边远地区
  • 1890 US census 1890年美国人口普查
  • census 人口普查
  • settlement 沉降;安家落户(尤指开拓荒土);移民;殖民;开拓
  • tremendously 极大地
  • prompted 提示
  • gather 收集
  • the American character 美国性格 (???)(Turner说边境史have shaped美国历史和美国性格)(这应该是本听力最重要的一个观点)
  • assert 断言
  • individuals 个人
  • sort of 有点
  • interpretation 解释
  • adequately 充分的
  • unconscious 无意识的
  • bias 偏见
  • fascinates 令……着迷
  • debate 辩论
  • tone 语气、语调
  • diverse 各种各样
  • a pretty culturally diverse place 一个文化差异很大的地方
  • a culturally diverse place 一个文化多元的地方
  • uniformity 均匀度
  • underestimate 低估
  • federal government 联邦政府
  • corporations 公司
  • dictated 被主宰
  • wheat 小麦
  • prospered 兴旺
  • impersonal 非人格的
  • agricultural products 农产品

不熟悉的地道的表达方式:

  • virtually free land 几乎免费的土地
  • turning it on its head 特指颠覆某个结论
  • as a for instance 例如
  • things like that 像这样的东西

 

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This article was last edited at 2021-02-15 16:19:00

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