考试并不希望考生understood before listening，但考生应该understood after listening。
Listen to part of lecture in a United States history Class.
I'd like to talk today about an important
period paradigm on in the history of United States, and I will came to be how it came to be changed a pony upon a second look.
In 1893, an eminent American
story historian by the name of fagrate tason Frederick Jackson Turner delived a lecture as the American Historical Association and his lecture was entitled "The significance of front here frontier in the American history".
Now, when he was talking about the frontier, he was referring to the part of american
was, west that wasn't get yet settled.
turn remade Turner made in his lecture was that the 18, 19 US-senses 1890 US census hava provided new data about settlement, and both those data showed that well, there was no longer a frontier. This disappearance of frontier themptin seem to him tremendeously tremendously significant and prounpit prompted him to together gather ideas about how the funtier frontier mind of shaped the might have shaped American history and the American character. Ternal sergit Turner asserted that the existence of frontier with cheaper or virtually free land for the taking available for individuals to sort of try their luck tended to promote certain ideals that were central to the American character. Ideals of economic self-sufficiency, individualism, political independence, small town democracy, suspicion of large government, things like that. He saw these things being really shaped by the economic and social conditions of the frontier and, for Turner, the end of the frontier in 1890 meant the end of this particular era of American character and that Americans would become less individualistic, less independent minded. 他看到这些事情实际上是由边境的经济和社会条件所塑造的，而且对于特纳来说，1890年边境的终结意味着这一美国特色时代的终结，美国人将变得个人主义程度下降，思想独立性下降。
And the frontier thesis was pretty much THE accept paradigm of the history of the American west, until the 1970s. 直到1970年代，前沿论文几乎都是美国西部历史的接受范式。 Then for a variety of reasons, historians studying the American west began to question this thesis and ultimately, many of them ended up pretty much turning it on its head. 然后由于种种原因，研究美国西部的历史学家开始质疑这一论点，最终，他们中的许多人最终将其转为颠倒。
And this what fascinates me about this debate. The change that happened was not so much a matter of people finding new evidence that hadn't been available to Turner, it was more a question of people looking at the same evidence with a different eye, with different emphases.
There are two main areas of challenge to Turner that arose in what's been called "The new western history".
One was that Turner tended to over-emphasize the importance of Americans of European decent on the western frontier. This was somewhat of an unconscious bias on his part, but you know, if you look at Turner's picture of the frontier, it was basically white men from Europe who set the tone and define the culture.
New western historians took another look at the west and realize that it was actually a pretty culturally diverse place. You had obviously American Indians, Mexicans, Chinese and others. So, so the cultural uniformity of the frontier that Turner saw, the new western historians look at it and see something very very different.
The other main area of challenge by new western historians was that Turner really, in their view, really underestimated the role of the federal government and large corporations in shaping the economic life of the frontier. I mean, just as a for instance, the federal government to this day, is the largest land owner west of the Mississippi River and people's lives when they got to the frontier were really dictated by market force beyond, pretty much, beyond their control. You know, you grew wheat you exported it to Europe and whether you prospered or not depended at least partly on the price of wheat which you had relatively little control over.
So these two main areas of challenge result in a very different picture of the western frontier. The new western historians see a culturally diverse place, a place where people weren't really in charge of their destiny even before the end of the frontier. People, you know, their destinies were controlled by large impersonal forces. Federal policy, changes in the prices of agricultural products, things like that.
For Turner, the end of the availability of cheap land marks a crucial change in United States history. But for the new western historians, it's really more of the same, a continuation of the same kind of conflicts that had gone on in the days before the so-called closing of the frontier. So, again, as I say, it's so interesting because it's a case of a shift in perception rather than a shift in the uderlying evidence that guided the initial perception.
弗雷德里克·杰克逊·特纳，如果你了解这个美国历史学家，你做这篇听力就会非常简单。但是如我之前所说的，“考试并不希望考生understood before listening，考生应该understood after listening”，那么对于单词“frontier”，如果你只背了“前沿”这个意思，那基本听不懂。我知道有部分人可能下意识认为，“边境”难道不是“border”吗？事实上，并不是这样。
- border: 多指国与国之间或两地区的分界处，即分界线附近的边缘部分。
- boundary: 侧重地图上正式标定的、双方遵守的边界，也可指较小行政单位间的界线。
- frontier: 指两国接壤的前沿地区，属于各国的国境和边疆，多指设防的边界。
Turner asserted that the existence of frontier with cheaper or virtually free land for the taking available for individuals to sort of try their luck tended to promote certain ideals that were central to the American character.
Ideals of economic self-sufficiency, individualism, political independence, small town democracy, suspicion of large government, things like that.
perception 这个单词反而不能直接理解为“洞察力”，它是指the ability to understand the true nature of sth
perception在这里，特指一种看法，an idea, a belief or an image you have as a result of how you see or understand sth
So, again, as l say, its so interesting because its a case of a shift in perception rather than a shift in the underlying evidence that guided the initial perception.
I will came to behow it came to be （这个真的能听陈 I will) a ponyupon a storyhistorian 历史学家 （这个H我就没听出来）(可以说这次听力真的差了） front herefrontier was,west themptinseem to him
- paradigm 范例 (paradigm (范式)= philosophy (理念) + methods (方法)=主流认为什么事该做+方式＋方法)
- eminent 杰出
- Frederick Jackson Turner 弗雷德里克·杰克逊·特纳 （这个人的名字是出乎我意料的）（居然有3个单词）（所以我后来我就根本不懂Turner是个什么东西）
- entitled 有资格
- American Historical Association 美国历史协会
- The significance of frontier in the American history 边境在美国历史中的意义
- frontier 边境；(尤指19世纪美国西部的)开发地区边缘地带，边远地区
- 1890 US census 1890年美国人口普查
- census 人口普查
- settlement 沉降；安家落户（尤指开拓荒土）；移民；殖民；开拓
- tremendously 极大地
- prompted 提示
- gather 收集
- the American character 美国性格 （？？？）（Turner说边境史have shaped美国历史和美国性格）（这应该是本听力最重要的一个观点）
- assert 断言
- individuals 个人
- sort of 有点
- interpretation 解释
- adequately 充分的
- unconscious 无意识的
- bias 偏见
- fascinates 令……着迷
- debate 辩论
- tone 语气、语调
- diverse 各种各样
- a pretty culturally diverse place 一个文化差异很大的地方
- a culturally diverse place 一个文化多元的地方
- uniformity 均匀度
- underestimate 低估
- federal government 联邦政府
- corporations 公司
- dictated 被主宰
- wheat 小麦
- prospered 兴旺
- impersonal 非人格的
- agricultural products 农产品
- virtually free land 几乎免费的土地
- turning it on its head 特指颠覆某个结论
- as a for instance 例如
- things like that 像这样的东西