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托福备考第45天——TPO Extra 1 Reading ①





The human population on Earth has grown to the point that it is having an effect on Earth's atmosphere and ecosystems. Burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, urbanization, cultivation of rice and cattle, and the manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs) for propellants and refrigerants are increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide, methane , nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, dust, and CFCs in the atmosphere. About 70 percent of the Sun's energy passes through the atmosphere and strikes Earth's surface. This radiation heats the surface of the land and ocean, and these surfaces then reradiate infrared radiation back into space. This allows Earth to avoid heating up too much. However, not all of the infrared radiation makes it into space; some is absorbed by gases in the atmosphere and is reradiated back to Earth's surface. A greenhouse gas is one that absorbs infrared radiation and then reradiates some of this radiation back to Earth. Carbon dioxide,CFCs, methane, and nitrogen oxides are greenhouse gases. The natural greenhouse effect of our atmosphere is well established. In fact, without greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, scientists calculate that Earth would be about 33℃ cooler than it currently is.

The current concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is about 360 parts per milion. Human activities are having a major influence on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, which are rising so fast that current predictions are that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide will double in the next 50 to 100 years. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) report in 1992, which represents a consensus of most atmospheric scientists, predicts that a doubling of carbon dioxide concentration would raise global temperatures anywhere between 1.4°Cand 4.5°C. The IPCC report issued in2 001 raised the temperature prediction almost twofold. The suggested rise in temperature is greater than the changes that occurred in the past between ice ages. The increase in temperatures would not be uniform, with the smallest changes at the equator and changes two or three times as great at the poles. The local effects of these global changes are difficut to predict, but it is generally agreed that they may include alterations in ocean currents, increased winter fooding in some areas of the Northern Hemisphere, a higher incidence of summer drought in some areas, and rising sea levels, which may flood low-lying countries.

Scientists are actively investigating the feedback mechanism within the physical, chemical, and biological components of Earth's climate system in order to make accurate predictions of the effects the rise in green house gases will have on future global climates. Global circulation models are important tools in this process. These models incorporate current knowledge on atmospheric circulation patterns, ocean currents, the effort of land masses, and the like to predict climate under changed conditions. These are several models, and all show agreement on a global scale. For example, all models show substantial changes in climate when carbon dioxide concentration is doubled. However, there are significant differences in the regional climates predicted by different models. Most models proiect greater temperature increases in mid-latitude regions and in mid-continental regions relative to the global average. Additionally, changes in precipitation patterns are predicted, with decreases in mid-latitude regions and increased rainfall in some tropical areas. Finally, most models predict that there will be increased occurrences of extreme events, such as extended periods without rain (drought), extreme heat waves, greater seasonal variation in temperatures, and increases in the frequency and magnitude of severe storms. Plants and animals have strong responses to virtually every aspect of these projected global changes.

The challenge of predicting organismal responses to global climate change is difficut. Partly, this is due to the fact that there are more studies of short-term, individual organism responses than there are of long-term, system wide studies. lt is extremely difficult, both monetarily and physically,for scientists to conduct field studies at spatial and temporal scales that are large enough to include all the components of real-world systems, especialy ecosystems with large , freely ranging organisms. one way paleobiologists try to get around this limitation is to attempt to reconstruct past climates by examing fossil life.

The relative roles that abiotic and biotic factors play in the distribution of organisms is especially important now, when the world is confronted with the consequences of a growing human population. Changes in climate, land use, and habitat destruction are currently causing dramatic decreases in biodiversity throughout the world. An understanding of climate-organism relationships is essential to efforts to preserve and manage Earth's biodiversity.






第一题的makes it很有启发意义,make it 能表达很多意思不限于arrive,几乎任何动词都可以用它怎么怎么样。


因为VR的错误联想(Virtual Reality)而联想到V应该是视觉,导致做错了。






  • 这篇阅读并没有真正去读,而是根据题目扫了扫。
  • 把控时间可以低于15分钟。
  • 单词是硬伤。


  • deforestation 森林砍伐
  • urbanization 城市化
  • cultivation 栽培
  • manufacture (用机器)大量生产
  • chlorofluorocarbons 氟氯烃
  • propellants 推进剂
  • refrigerants 制冷剂  
  • concentration 聚集
  • methane 甲烷
  • nitrogen oxides 氮氧化物
  • sulphur oxides 硫氧化合物
  • infrared 红外线的
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 政府间气候变化专门委员会
  • consensus 共识
  • twofold 两倍的
  • uniform 一致的;统一的;一律的
  • equator 赤道
  • alterations 变更
  • Northern Hemisphere 北半球
  • investigating 调查
  • circulation 循环
  • atmospheric circulation patterns 大气环流模式
  • land masses 陆块
  • substantial 重大的;大量的;坚实的;实质性的
  • mid-latitude 中纬度
  • mid-continental 中大陆
  • precipitation 沉淀;降水
  • precipitation patterns 降水模式
  • tropical 热带的
  • magnitude 震级;巨大;重大;重要性;星等;星的亮度;
  • virtually 实际上 (这个单词总是能和visual混淆)
  • virtual 虚拟的;很接近的;实际上的; (注意,virtual跟视觉没有关系,不能因为VR给带偏)
  • organismal (有)机体的;生物的
  • conduct 组织;安排
  • spatial 空间的 (我是撞破脑袋也想不到这是space的改写变形)
  • temporal 现世的;暂时的
  • paleobiologists (paleontologists) 古生物学家
  • abiotic 非生物
  • biotic 生物的
  • biodiversity 生物多样性


  • gases in the atmosphere 大气中的气体
  • 360 parts per milion 每百万分之360(挺有意思的表达方式,不理解也没关系)
  • all models show substantial changes in climate 所有的模型都显示了气候的实质性变化
  • increased occurrences of extreme events 极端事件发生率增加
  • magnitude of severe storms 强风暴的强度
  • organismal responses 生物反应
  • lt is extremely difficult, both monetarily and physically 无论是金钱上还是身体上,这都是极其困难的(可以拿来写作文)
  • temporal scales 时间尺度



下一篇:托福备考第46天——TPO Extra 1 Reading ②

This article was last edited at 2021-03-10 18:22:21

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