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What is "使役形", "意志形", and "推量形"?

Sometimes, Chinese is really a headache, such as "使役形" and "意志形", or even "推量形". Although you can guess the general meaning from the literal sense, it still leaves you confused.

If you speak in English, “意志形”=Volitional.



  • この问题は难しいから、少し考えさせてください。This question is difficult, please let me think about it.

Asking others to let oneself do something... (this is 使役)



  • 「がんばろう」
  • 「食べよう」
  • 「起きよう」
  • 「しよう」
  • 「来よう」

Indicates the wishes of the speaker, but also an invitation or urging.
There are "たい", "欲しい" and "意志形" in expressing their wishes.



If you want to understand it directly, it is "意志形minus よう".

"推量形" cannot be used independently, an auxiliary verb must be added after it. For example,

  • 食べ+よう
  • 起き+よう
  • がんばろ+う

According to the different auxiliary verbs added, the "推量形" can form 4 forms.

A 意志形

B 劝诱形

C 推测形

D 惯用形

There are 10 types of "惯用形".

However, it is not recommended to memorize it directly, because it is very boring.


The reason why I want to talk about these points today is because I have not been able to distinguish the difference between "命令形" and "意志形".
For instance, "起きよう" and "起きろう". Because I didn't study grammar systematically, I simply think that what is pronounced at the end of "~ou" is "命令形".
Now I realize that there is still a "意志形" in Japanese. It is at the same level as "たい" and "欲しい", but it is basically said to others. Hope others can do it or accept it.



This article was last edited at 2021-03-19 19:02:40

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