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TPO閲讀解析——Timberline Vegetation on Mountains

Timberline Vegetation on Mountains

      The transition from forest to treeless tundra on a mountain slope is often a dramatic one. Within a vertical distance of just a few tens of meters, trees disappear as a life-form and are replaced by low shrubs, herbs, and grasses. This rapid zone of transition is called the upper timberline or tree line. In many semiarid areas there is also a lower timberline where the forest passes into steppe or desert at its lower edge, usually because of a lack of moisture.

 

  1. The word dramatic in the passage is closest in meaning to
  1. gradual
  2. complex
  3. visible
  4. striking

Correct Answer: D

解析:dramatic想表達劇烈的意思,符合的只有striking這個選項。

 

  1. Where is the lower timberline mentioned in paragraph 1 likely to be found?
  1. In an area that has little water
  2. In an area that has little light
  3. Above a transition area
  4. On a mountain that has no upper timberline

Correct Answer: A

解析:第一段最後一句“In many semiarid areas there is also a lower timberline where the forest passes into steppe or desert at its lower edge, usually because of a lack of moisture.”專門介紹lower timberline經常性缺失水分,所以有很少水的地方才會出現,故選A

 

  1. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 1 about both the upper and lower timberlines?
  1. Both are tree less zones
  2. Both mark forest boundaries
  3. Both are surrounded by desert areas
  4. Both suffer from a lack of moisture

Correct Answer: B

解析:上一題已經指出了lack of moisturelower timberline的特徵,故排除D選項;上林綫和下林綫,既然作爲綫,它不可能被沙漠包圍,也不可能全是荒木,林綫就是指的森林,當然是作爲邊界劃分存在的,故選B(这一条的前提是你不知道timberline的具体含义)

 

The upper timberline, like the snow line, is highest in the tropics and lowest in the Polar Regions. It ranges from sea level in the Polar Regions to 4,500 meters in the dry subtropics and 3,500-4,500 meters in the moist tropics. Timberline trees are normally evergreens, suggesting that these have some advantage over deciduous trees (those that lose their leaves) in the extreme environments of the upper timberline. There are some areas, however, where broadleaf deciduous trees form the timberline. Species of birch, for example, may occur at the timberline in parts of the Himalayas.

 

  1. Paragraph 2 supports which of the following statements about deciduous trees?
  1. They cannot grow in cold climates.
  2. They do not exist at the upper timberlines.
  3. They are less likely than evergreens to survive at the upper timberline.
  4. They do not require as mush moisture as evergreens do.

Correct Answer: C

解析:第二段告訴了我們,上林綫的組成一般都是常綠林,偶爾有闊葉林,這裏特地舉例了喜馬拉雅山的樺樹林木,所以C選項是正確的。這一題通過paragraph2的整段閲讀,即可選出答案C,沒有必要去比較其他選項,因爲明顯是錯的。

 

At the upper timberline the trees begin to become twisted and deformed. This is particularly true for trees in the middle and upper latitudes, which tend to attain greater heights on ridges, whereas in the tropics the trees reach their greater heights in the valleys. This is because middle- and upper- latitude timberlines are strongly influenced by the duration and depth of the snow cover. As the snow is deeper and lasts longer in the valleys, trees tend to attain greater heights on the ridges, even though they are more exposed to high-velocity winds and poor, thin soils there. In the tropics, the valleys appear to be more favorable because they are less prone to dry out, they have less frost, and they have deeper soils.

 

  1. The word attain in the passage is closest in meaning to
  1. require
  2. resist
  3. achieve
  4. endure

Correct Answer: C

解析:attain尤指通過一定努力獲得的,和achieve意思相近。

 

  1. The word they in the passage refers to
  1. valleys
  2. trees
  3. heights
  4. ridges

Correct Answer: B

解析:赤道的緯度是0°,上林綫的樹木會變得扭曲變形,這尤其是在中緯度和高緯度地區。而且到達最大長度的方式也不一樣,低緯度地區,最高最長的樹木一般都在valley,高緯度地區,一般都在地面,這是由於持續和較深的積雪覆蓋導致。整段都在講treeattain great height的特性。

 

  1. The word prone in the passage is closest in meaning to
  1. adapted
  2. likely
  3. difficult
  4. resistant

Correct Answer: B

解析:be prone to= be likely to,趨向於。

 

  1. According to paragraph 3, which of the following is true of trees in the middle and upper latitudes?
  1. Tree growth is negatively affected by the snow cover in valleys.
  2. Tree growth is greater in valleys than on ridges
  3. Tree growth on ridges is not affected by high-velocity winds.
  4. Tree growth lasts longer in those latitudes than it does in the tropics

Correct Answer: A

解析:這一題最大的問題是不把greater看成比較級,我就是這樣的。第六題雖然做對了,但是一直以爲是向陽特性(純屬自己加戲)。而且我甚至不認爲“扭曲變形”是個negative effect,導致我這一題直接選了DParagraph 3的結構是:總結+Detail+上、中緯度的例子+低緯度的例子。

 

There is still no universally agreed-on explanation for why there should be such a dramatic cessation of tree growth at the upper timberline. Various environmental factors may play a role. Too much snow, for example, can smother trees, and avalanches and snow creep can damage or destroy them. Late-lying snow reduces the effective growing season to the point where seedlings cannot establish themselves. Wind velocity also increases with altitude and may cause serious stress for trees, as is made evident by the deformed shapes at high altitudes. Some scientists have proposed that the presence of increasing levels of ultraviolet light with elevation may play a role, while browsing and grazing animals like the ibex may be another contributing factor. Probably the most important environmental factor is temperature, for if the growing season is too short and temperatures are too low, tree shoots and buds cannot mature sufficiently to survive the winter months.

 

  1. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choice change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
  1. Because of their deformed shapes at high altitudes, trees are not likely to be seriously harmed by the strong winds typical of those altitudes.
  2. As altitude increases, the velocity of winds increases, leading to a serious decrease in the number of trees found at high altitudes
  3. The deformed shapes of trees at high altitudes show that wind velocity, which increases with altitudes, can cause serious hardship for trees.
  4. Increase wind velocity at high altitudes deforms the shapes of trees, and this may cause stress for trees.

Correct Answer: C

解析:A是事實改寫,說扭曲變形的樹木不容易受到强風的影響,因果倒置;B是加戲,樹木的減少在原文中并沒有提到;D是邏輯順序錯誤,是先對樹木產生壓力,才帶來變形的。C選項,正好把原句倒過來寫了。原句先說結論高風會對樹木帶來影響,而樹木的變形是證據。改寫句說,樹木的變形恰好展示了,高風和海拔的增高會給樹木帶來嚴重的hardship

 

  1. In paragraph 4, what is the author's main purpose in the discussion of the dramatic cessation of tree growth at the upper timberline?
  1. To argue that none of several environmental factors that are believed to contribute to that phenomenon do in fact play a role in causing it.
  2. To argue in support of one particular explanation of the phenomenon against several competing explanations
  3. To explain why the primary environmental factor responsible for that phenomenon has not yet been identified
  4. To present several environmental factors that may contribute to a satisfactory explanation of that phenomenon

Correct Answer: D

解析:這題要做對的話,明顯要讀得懂答案。A,表示作者認爲上述原因沒有一個正確的,顯然文中并沒有這麽説;B,表示作者支持某個特定解釋,顯然也沒有;C,解釋某個主要因素沒有被人認同的原因,沒有看到oppose更沒看到解釋;D,正解,提供一堆factors試圖來達成一個令人滿意的解釋。

 

The most striking characteristic of the plants of the alpine zone is their low growth form. This enables them to avoid the worst rigors of high winds and permits them to make use of the higher temperatures immediately adjacent to the ground surface. In an area where low temperatures are limiting to life, the importance of the additional heat near the surface is crucial. The low growth form can also permit the plants to take advantage of the insulation provided by a winter snow cover. In the equatorial mountains the low growth form is less prevalent.

 

  1. The word prevalent in the passage is closest meaning to
  1. predictable
  2. widespread
  3. successful
  4. developed

Correct Answer: B

解析:靠認識單詞。

 

  1. According to paragraph 6, all of the following statements are true of plants in alpine zone EXCEPT:
  1. Because they are low, they are less exposed to strong winds.
  2. Because they are low, the winter snow cover gives them more protection from the extreme cold.
  3. In the equatorial mountains, they tend to be lower than in mountains elsewhere.
  4. Their low growth form keeps them closer to the ground, where there is more heat than further up.

Correct Answer: C

解析:否定事實信息題。3對選1錯,本段最後1句説了赤道地區這種low-growth plants更少,而不是更多,非常明顯的錯誤,選C

 

Above the tree line there is a zone that is generally called alpine tundra. Immediately adjacent to the timberline, the tundra consists of a fairly complete cover of low-lying shrubs, herbs, and grasses, while higher up the number and diversity of species decrease until there is much bare ground with occasional mosses and lichens and some prostrate cushion plants.  Some plants can even survive in favorable microhabitats above the snow line. The highest plants in the world occur at around 6,100 meters on Makalu in the Himalayas.   At this great height, rocks, warmed by the sun, melt small snowdrifts.

 

  1. Look at the four squares [ ] that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.

This explains how, for example, alpine cushion plants have been found growing at an altitude of 6,180 meters.

Where would the sentence best fit?

Click on a square  [ ]  to insert the sentence in the passage.

Correct Answer is D.

解析:This explains how説明這句話前面一定是講述的一個完整的方法。如果把該句插在C位置的話,這裏的THIS就是代指6100米開始出現最高的植物,然後又說6180米出現的alpine cushion,直接導致最後一句的At this great height是代指的6180米,那6100米難道不是嗎?明顯出現了邏輯斷層。正確的邏輯應該是,世界上海拔最高的植物出現在喜馬拉雅山6100米的馬卡魯峰,在這個高度上,被陽光溫暖過的岩石,融化雪堆,這就解釋了爲什麽能在6180米發現alpine cushion plants

 

  1. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

At the timberline, whether upper or lower, there is a profound change in the growth of trees and other plants.

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Answer Choice

  1. Birch is one of the few species of tree that can survive in the extreme environment of the upper timberline
  2. There is no agreement among scientists as to exactly why plant growth is sharply different above and below the upper timberline.
  3. The temperature at the upper timberline is probably more important in preventing tree growth than factors such as the amount of snowfall or force of winds.
  4. The geographical location of an upper timberline has an impact on both the types of trees found there and their physical characteristics.
  5. High level of ultraviolet light most likely play a greater role in determining tree growth at the upper timberline than do grazing animals such as the ibex.
  6. Despite being adjacent to the timberline, the alpine tundra is an area where certain kinds of low trees can endure high winds and very low temperatures.

Correct Answer is BCD.

解析:A是一個細節選項,不選;B對應了第四段首句,正確;Ctemperature可能是最重要的因素,正確;D,地理位置影響,這裏主要對應第二段和第三段;E錯誤,ultraviolet只是個次要因素;F錯誤,tundra是沒有樹的。答案的順序沒有問題,只要選出來就行,不管是CBD還是DCB

 

*紅色加粗字體表示生詞

*藍色加粗字體表示TPO題選取的單詞

*綠色字體表示正確答案

 

生詞補充:https://www.v2know.com/MainPage/PreView/785

主目錄:https://www.v2know.com/MainPage/Category/TOEFL

This article was last edited at 2021-05-25 16:55:35

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