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TPO閲讀解析——Groundwater

Groundwater

   Groundwater is the word used to describe water that saturates the ground, filling all the available spaces. By far the most abundant type of groundwater is meteoric water; this is the groundwater that circulates as part of the water cycle. Ordinary meteoric water is water that has soaked into the ground from the surface, from precipitation (rain and snow) and from lakes and streams. There it remains, sometimes for long periods, before emerging at the surface again. At first thought it seems incredible that there can be enough space in the “solid” ground underfoot to hold all this water.

 

  1. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 1 about the ground that we walked on?
  1. It cannot hold rainwater for long periods of time.
  2. It prevents most groundwater from circulating
  3. It has the capacity to store large amounts of water
  4. It absorbs most of the water it contains from rivers.

Correct Answer is C.

解析:第一段最後一句提到了“it seems incredible that there can be enough space”説明容量非常大,同時大多數的groundwater還是來自precipitation,也就是雨雪,那麽也就是說來自於水循環,這麽一來B必然是錯的;D選項沒有提及,屬於捏造事實。A選項有對應句子 There it remains, sometimes for long periods, before emerging at the surface again. 直接證明是錯的,故選C

 

  1. The word incredible in the passage is closest in meaning to
  1. confusing
  2. comforting
  3. unbelievable
  4. interesting

Correct Answer is C.

解析:記住詞義。

 

 

The necessary space is there, however, in many forms. The commonest spaces are those among the particlessand grains and tiny pebbles—of loose, unconsolidated sand and gravel. Beds of this material, out of sight beneath the soil, are common. They are found wherever fast rivers carrying loads of coarse sediment once flowed. For example, as the great ice sheets that covered North America during the last ice age steadily melted away, huge volumes of water flowed from them. The water was always laden with pebbles, gravel, and sand, known as glacial outwash, that was deposited as the flow slowed down.

 

  1. The phrase out of sight in the passage is closest in meaning to
  1. far away
  2. hidden
  3. partly visible
  4. discovered

Correct Answer is B.

解析:out of sight,離開視綫的,換言之,就是看不到的,選hidden

 

  1. According to paragraph 2, where is groundwater usually found?
  1. Inside pieces of sand and gravel
  2. On top of beds of rock
  3. In fast rivers that are flowing beneath the soil
  4. In spaces between pieces of sediment

Correct Answer is D.

解析:這一題容易錯選C。實際上你只要找到這一句“The commonest spaces are those among the particles”就能知道地下水通常存在於間隙中。補充知識:石油和天然氣同樣是存在於岩石孔隙中。注意amongin的區別,這一題還容易誤選AB是完全不可能了,完全的捏造事實。這一題考察的是同義轉換,among轉換爲betweenparticles轉換爲sediment

 

  1. The phrase glacial outwash in the passage refers to
  1. fast rivers
  2. glaciers
  3. the huge volumes of water created by glacial melting
  4. the particles carried in water from melting glaciers

Correct Answer is D.

解析:這一題可能會誤選C,着急於做題,僅從字面意思選擇。實際上,“The water was always laden with pebbles, gravel, and sand, known as glacial outwash 已經等於告訴我們glacial outwash是有很多pebblesgravelsand,同義轉換是particle,故選D。(不過你要是知道outwash是冰河沉積的話,同樣也不可能選C,你會做出sedimentparticle的同義轉換)

 

 

The same thing happens to this day, though on a smaller scale, wherever a sediment-laden river or stream emerges from a mountain valley onto relatively flat land, dropping its load as the current slows: the water usually spreads out fanwise, depositing the sediment in the form of a smooth, fan-shaped slope. Sediments are also dropped where a river slows on entering a lake or the sea, the deposited sediments are on a lake floor or the seafloor at first, but will be located inland at some future date, when the sea level falls or the land rises; such beds are sometimes thousands of meters thick.

 

  1. All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 3 as places that sediment-laden rivers can deposit their sediments EXCEPT
  1. a mountain valley
  2. flat land
  3. a lake floor
  4. the seafloor

Correct Answer is A.

解析:原文最後一句提到了,在將來的某個時候,當海平綫下降或者陸地身高,河床沉積層就會顯示出來,所以CD百分之百不選。而第一句提到“sediment-laden river or stream”出現于mountain valley流向flat land,但流速變得緩慢的時候,便開始沉積了,這句話僅僅告訴我們valleysediment-laden river流向flat land所經過的地方,沒有説會沉積。“…onto relatively flat land, dropping its load as the current slows 同義轉換就是説flat land會沉積。從“Sediments are also dropped where”也可以得知上一句提到了一處沉積的地方,不是valley就是flat land了,所以這一題選A

 

 

In lowland country almost any spot on the ground may overlie what was once the bed of a river that has since become buried by soil; if they are now below the water’s upper surface (the water table), the gravels and sands of the former riverbed, and its sandbars, will be saturated with groundwater.

 

  1. The word overlie in the passage is closest in meaning to
  1. cover
  2. change
  3. separate
  4. surround

Correct Answer is A.

解析:記住詞義。

 

 

So much for unconsolidated sediments. Consolidated (or cemented) sediments, too, contain millions of minute water-holding pores. This is because the gaps among the original grains are often not totally plugged with cementing chemicals; also, parts of the original grains may become dissolved by percolating groundwater, either while consolidation is taking place or at any time afterwards. The result is that sandstone, for example, can be as porous as the loose sand from which it was formed.

 

  1. The phrase So much for in the passage is closest in meaning to
  1. That is enough about
  2. Now let us turn to
  3. Of greater concern are
  4. This is related to

Correct Answer is A.

解析:從第二句可以看到,開始講consolidated sediments了,説明告一段落了,故選A

 

  1. The word plugged in the passage is closest in meaning to
  1. washed
  2. dragged
  3. filled up
  4. soaked through

Correct Answer is C.

解析:如果你知道plugged是被堵塞的,那你百分之百會選C

 

 

Thus a proportion of the total volume of any sediment, loose or cemented, consists of empty space. Most crystalline rocks are much more solid; a common exception is basalt, a form of solidified volcanic lava, which is sometimes full of tiny bubbles that make it very porous.

The proportion of empty space in a rock is known as its porosity. But note that porosity is not the same as permeability, which measures the ease with which water can flow through a material; this depends on the sizes of the individual cavities and the crevices linking them.

 

  1. According to paragraph 6 and 7, why is basalt unlike most crystalline forms of rock?
  1. It is unusually sold.
  2. often has high porosity.
  3. It has a low proportion of empty space.
  4. It is highly permeable.

Correct Answer is B.

解析:原句提到過水晶結構通常是不會有氣泡或孔的,但是這裏有一個例外,就是玄武岩,選B

 

 

  1. What is the main purpose of paragraph 7?
  1. To explain why water can flow through rock
  2. To emphasize the large amount of empty space in all rock
  3. point out that a rock cannot be both porous and permeable
  4. To distinguish between two related properties of rock

Correct Answer is D.

解析:多孔性并不代表滲漏性質,即使某些岩石内部多孔結構,但它并不是可被滲透的那種。這一段很明顯是爲了區分這倆個特性,故選D

 

 

The relative amount of these two kinds of water varies greatly from one kind of rock or sediment to another, even though their porosities may be the same. What happens depends on pore size. If the pores are large, the water in them will exist as drops too heavy for surface tension to hold, and it will drain away; but if the pores are small enough, the water in them will exist as thin films, too light to overcome the force of surface tension holding them in place; then the water will be firmly held.

 

  1. Which of the sentences below best express the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
  1. Surface tension is not strong enough to retain drops of water in rocks with large pores but is strong enough to hold on to thin films of water in rocks with small pores.
  2. Water in rocks held in place by large pores and drain away from small size pores through surface tension.
  3. Small pores and large pores both interact with surface tension to determine whether a rock will hold water as heavy drops or as a thin film.
  4. If the force of surface tension is too weak to hold water in place as heavy drops, the water will continue to be held firmly in place as a thin film when large pores exist.

Correct Answer is A.

解析:BD捏造事實,直接排除。C選項問題出在“whether a rock will hold water as heavy drops or as a thin film”,原句是告訴你當氣孔很大的時候會是heavy drops,氣孔小的時候會是thin film,而不是説“不管是heavy drops 還是thin film”,同時C選項還有一個非常嚴重的問題,就是相互作用,原句并沒有强調相互作用,僅僅是做了個對比,故選A

 

 

Much of the water in a sample of water-saturated sediment or rock will drain from it if the sample is put in a suitable dry place.  But some will remain, clinging to all solid surfaces. It is held there by the force of surface tension without which water would drain instantly from any wet surface, leaving it totally dry.  The total volume of water in the saturated sample must therefore be thought of as consisting of water that can, and water that cannot, drain away.

 

  1. Look at the four squares [ ] that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.

What, then, determines what proportion of the water stays and what proportion drains away?

Where would the sentence best fit?

Click on a square [ ] to insert the sentence in the passage.

Correct Answer is D.

解析:But前面不可能,因爲是對上一句情況的轉折;It前面更不可能,it代指的某樣東西,不可能前面是設問句。The total更相當於總結句,但是該句并沒有回答設問句的問題,所以排除以上情況,只能選D

 

  1. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

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Answer Choices

  1. Sediments that hold water were spread by glaciers and are still spread by rivers and streams.
  2. Water is stored underground in beds of loose sand and gravel or in cemented sediment.
  3. The size of a saturated rock's pores determines how much water it will retain when the rock is put in a dry place.
  4. Groundwater often remains underground for a long time before it emerges again.
  5. Like sandstone, basalt is a crystalline rock that is very porous.
  6. Beds of unconsolidated sediments are typically located at inland sites that were once underwater.

Correct Answer is ABC.

解析:最後一題千萬別選細節,細節100%錯,直接可以排除E。剩下的可能是53,你除非運氣太差,選錯2個,不然至少還能拿到1分。D选项错在often,而且本文主要讨论的是地下水的形成和储存形式,和在地下停留的时间没太大关系,这个不算细节但算是无关选项;F是同理,F討論沉積層一度是在水裏,但,這跟地下水有什麽關係呢。排除完成了DEF,正確的只有ABC。(禁忌:不能選細節;不能選無關内容)

 

*綠色字體表示生詞

*藍色字體表示TPO題選取的單詞

*紅色表示正確答案+多次重复的单词

 

主目錄:https://www.v2know.com/MainPage/Category/TOEFL

This article was last edited at 2021-05-20 01:02:06

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