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TPO閲讀解析——EARLY CINEMA

EARLY CINEMA

      The cinema did not emerge as a form of mass consumption until its technology evolved from the initial "peepshow" format to the point where images were projected on a screen in a darkened theater. In the peepshow format, a film was viewed through a small opening in a machine that was created for that purpose. Thomas Edison’s peepshow device, the Kinetoscope, was introduced to the public in 1894. It was designed for use in Kinetoscope parlors, or arcades, which contained only a few individual machines and permitted only one customer to view a short, 50-foot film at any one time. The first Kinetoscope parlors contained five machines. For the price of 25 cents (or 5 cents per machine), customers moved from machine to machine to watch five different films (or, in the case of famous prizefights, successive rounds of a single fight).

 

  1. According to paragraph 1, all of the following were true of viewing films in Kinetoscope parlors EXCEPT:
  1. One individual at a time viewed a film.
  2. Customers could view one film after another.
  3. Prizefights were the most popular subjects for films.
  4. Each film was short.

Correct Answer is C.

解析:原文并没有提及Prizefights是最流行的。

 

These Kinetoscope arcades were modeled on phonograph parlors, which had proven successful for Edison several years earlier. In the phonograph parlors, customers listened to recordings through individual ear tubes, moving from one machine to the next to hear different recorded speeches or pieces of music. The Kinetoscope parlors functioned in a similar way. Edison was more interested in the sale of Kinetoscopes (for roughly $1,000 apiece) to these parlors than in the films that would be run in them (which cost approximately $10 to $15 each).He refused to develop projection technology, reasoning that if he made and sold projectors, then exhibitors would purchase only one machine-a projector-from him instead of several.

 

  1. The author discusses phonograph parlors in paragraph 2 in order to
  1. explain Edison's financial success
  2. describe the model used to design Kinetoscope parlors
  3. contrast their popularity to that of Kinetoscope parlors
  4. illustrate how much more technologically advanced Kinetoscope parlors were.

Correct Answer is B.

解析:排除法。第二段完全沒有提及Edisonfinancial success,所以A不選;同時也沒有和kinetoscope parlors比較popularity,甚至都沒提到popularity,有的只是在描述phonograph parlors的運作形式,為的是告訴讀者kinetoscope parlors也是一樣運作的;D選項闡述kinetoscope parlors在科技是多麽領先,如果真的是闡述領先的話,那就必然會有“對比”,但是原文并沒有對比,只是單純的在描述,同時也沒有正面或側面提及技術優越性,所以這一條只能選B

 

  1. Which of the sentences below best express the essential information in the highlighted sentence from the passage? Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
  1. Edison was more interested in developing a variety of machines than in developing a technology based on only one.
  2. Edison refused to work on projection technology because he did not think exhibitors would replace their projectors with newer machines
  3. Edison did not want to develop projection technology because it limited the number of machines he could sell.
  4. Edison would not develop projection technology unless exhibitors agreed to purchase more than one projector for him.

Correct Answer is C.

解析:這一題出得特別沒有水平,只要把第二段最後一句讀懂意思的話,不可能選錯。

 

Exhibitors, however, wanted to maximize their profits, which they could do more readily by projecting a handful of films to hundreds of customers at a time (rather than one at a time) and by charging 25 to 50 cents admission. About a year after the opening of the first Kinetoscope parlor in 1894, showmen such as Louis and Auguste Lumiere, Thomas Armat and Charles Francis Jenkins, and Orville and Woodville Latham (with the assistance of Edison’s former assistant, William Dickson) perfected projection devices. These early projection devices were used in vaudeville theaters, legitimate theaters, local town halls, makeshift storefront theaters, fairgrounds, and amusement parks to show films to a mass audience.

 

  1. The word readily in the passage is closest in meaning to
  1. frequently
  2. easily
  3. intelligently
  4. obviously

Correct Answer is B.

解析:記住詞義。

 

  1. The word assistance in the passage is closest in meaning to
  1. criticism
  2. leadership
  3. help
  4. approval

Correct Answer is C.

解析:記住詞義。

 

 

With the advent of projection in 1895-1896, motion pictures became the ultimate form of mass consumption. Previously, large audiences had viewed spectacles at the theater, where vaudeville, popular dramas, musical and minstrel shows, classical plays, lectures, and slide-and-lantern shows had been presented to several hundred spectators at a time. But the movies differed significantly from these other forms of entertainment, which depended on either live performance or (in the case of the slide-and-lantern shows) the active involvement of a master of ceremonies who assembled the final program.

 

  1. According to paragraph 4, how did the early movies differ from previous spectacles that were presented to large audiences?
  1. They were a more expensive form of entertainment.
  2. They were viewed by larger audiences.
  3. They were more educational.
  4. They did not require live entertainers.

Correct Answer is D.

解析:“But the movies differed significantly from these other forms of entertainment, which depended on either live performance or (in the case of the slide-and-lantern shows) the active involvement of a master of ceremonies who assembled the final program. 直接回答了電影與傳統形式的娛樂的不同,電影不需要現場主持人……需要注意的是括號,這裏的括號内容基本可以忽略,它是用來舉例幻燈片這種形式(典型)與傳統形式娛樂的不同。

 

 

Although early exhibitors regularly accompanied movies with live acts, the substance of the movies themselves is mass-produced, prerecorded material that can easily be reproduced by theaters with little or no active participation by the exhibitor. Even though early exhibitors shaped their film programs by mixing films and other entertainments together in whichever way they thought would be most attractive to audiences or by accompanying them with lectures, their creative control remained limited. What audiences came to see was the technological marvel of the movies; the lifelike reproduction of the commonplace motion of trains, of waves striking the shore, and of people walking in the street; and the magic made possible by trick photography and the manipulation of the camera.

 

  1. According to paragraph 5, what role did early exhibitors play in the presentation of movies in theaters?
  1. They decided how to combine various components of the film program.
  2. They advised film-makers on appropriate movie content.
  3. They often took part in the live-action performances.
  4. They produced and prerecorded the material that was shown in the theaters.

Correct Answer is A.

解析:关键句“…their creative control remained limited. What audiences came to see was the technological marvel of the movies…”可以得知exhibitor的創造力有限,人們過來看這些電影只是想來看marvel以及生活場景的再現。早期展示者在劇院放送電影時,起了什麽樣的作用?在我看來就是mixing,混剪了一堆影像,其他的作用還真的沒看出來。因爲BC沒有提及,D選項說生產並提前錄製,整段也沒提及這樣的説法,甚至可以這麽説,這一段將近三分之一的内容都在説mixing films,所以沒有理由選D

 

 

With the advent of projection, the viewer’s relationship with the image was no longer private, as it had been with earlier peepshow devices such as the Kinetoscope and the Mutoscope, which was a similar machine that reproduced motion by means of successive images on individual photographic cards instead of on strips of celluloid. It suddenly became public-an experience that the viewer shared with dozens, scores, and even hundreds of others. At the same time, the image that the spectator looked at expanded from the minuscule peepshow dimensions of 1 or 2 inches (in height) to the life-size proportions of 6 or 9 feet.

 

  1. Which of the following is mentioned in paragraph 6 as one of the ways the Mutoscope differed from the Kinetoscope?

A. Sound and motion were simultaneously produced in the Mutoscope.

B. More than one person could view the images at the same time with the Mutoscope.

C. The Mutoscope was a less sophisticated earlier prototype of Kinetoscope.

D. A different type of material was used to produce the images used in the Mutoscope.

Correct Answer is D.

解析:這一條爲什麽不選B?原因在於which從句的後一句“It suddenly became public-an experience that the viewer shared with dozens, scores,…”觀眾能夠和十二個、二十個、甚至是上百個人共同觀看一部電影。然而,就算是kinetoscope也不是那種一次只能一個人看的東西,所以B不能算是決定性的區別。決定性的區別還是說他們用了不同的材料,mutoscope用的是individual photographic cardskinetoscope用的是strips of celluloid,所以這一題選D。第三段的倒數第二句“這些早期的投影機在眾多場合為大眾觀眾播放電影,如:雜技劇團、正當的影院、當地鎮上的禮堂、臨時的影院店面、露天遊樂場和遊樂園等”也説明了即使是早期的改良版kinetoscope也不是一個人使用的。

 

  1. The word it in the passage refers to
  1. the advent of projection
  2. the view's relationship with the image
  3. a similar machine
  4. celluloid

Correct Answer is B.

解析:看上一句的主幹部分“With the advent of projection, the viewer’s relationship with the image was no longer private, as… as後面是在增加額外信息,主幹是the viewer’s relationship with the image was no longer private,那麽it代指的就是它。

 

  1. According to paragraph 6, the images seen by viewers in the earlier peepshows, compared to the images projected on the screen, were relatively
  1. small in size
  2. inexpensive to create
  3. unfocused
  4. limited in subject matter

Correct Answer is A.

解析:relatively相對地、相比較而言地,可忽略。早期的西洋鏡確實比投影儀小,這個可以從該段最後一句得到解釋。

 

  1. The word expanded in the passage is closest meaning to
  1. was enlarged
  2. was improved
  3. was varied
  4. was rejected

Correct Answer is A.

解析:記住詞義。

 

 

Exhibitors, however, wanted to maximize their profits, which they could do more readily by projecting a handful of films to hundreds of customers at a time (rather than one at a time) and by charging 25 to 50 cents admission. About a year after the opening of the first Kinetoscope parlor in 1894, showmen such as Louis and Auguste Lumiere, Thomas Armat and Charles Francis Jenkins, and Orville and Woodville Latham (with the assistance of Edison’s former assistant, William Dickson) perfected projection devices. These early projection devices were used in vaudeville theaters, legitimate theaters, local town halls, makeshift storefront theaters, fairgrounds, and amusement parks to show films to a mass audience.

 

  1. Look at the four squares [ ] that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.

When this widespread use of projection technology began to hurt his Kinetoscope business, Edison acquired a projector developed by Armat and introduced it as "Edison's latest marvel, the Vitascope."

Where would the sentence best fit?

Click on a square [ ] to insert the sentence in the passage.

Correct Answer is D.

解析:“When this widespread use of projection 有指代上述xx的廣汎使用,符合的位置只有結尾,因爲之前提到“These early projection devices were used in vaudeville theaters, legitimate theaters, local town halls, makeshift storefront theaters, fairgrounds, and amusement parks to show films to a mass audience. 等一堆地方使用了projection,所以愛迪生坐不住了,發明了vitascope

 

  1. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

The technology for modern cinema evolved at the end of the nineteenth century.

  1.  
  2.  
  3.  
  1. Kinetoscope parlors for viewing films were modeled on phonograph parlors.
  2. Thomas Edison's design of the Kinetoscope inspired the development of large screen projection.
  3. Early cinema allowed individuals to use special machines to view films privately.
  4. Slide-and-lantern shows had been presented to audiences of hundreds of spectators.
  5. The development of the projection technology made it possible to project images on a large screen.
  6. Once film images could be projected, the cinema became a form of mass consumption.

Correct Answer is CEF.

解析:ABD是細節,直接排除。可以看主句“The technology for modern cinema evolved at the end of the nineteenth century.”那我們就主要看是如何evolved的,很明顯A只是闡述一個細節,是正確的但是無關;B選項沒有直接的語句讓人聯想到是被愛迪生inspired,同時也沒有説這種inspire有什麽決定性的成就,所以也排除;D選項是細節,但是這個細節看起來好像還是錯誤的,所以不可能選。剩下只有CEF可選。

 

*綠色字體表示生詞

*藍色字體表示TPO題選取的單詞

*紅色表示正確答案+多次重复的单词

 

主目錄:https://www.v2know.com/MainPage/Category/TOEFL

This article was last edited at 2021-05-24 14:51:05

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