独立口语： 模板： 开头： I agree with the idea that... I think it is better to... I think it is a great/terrible idea to... 过渡： I feel this way for two reasons. 陈述理由： First...+For example... Second...+To be specific... TIPS AND TRICKS: 尽可能多地提升你的词汇量 Use discourse phrases like "as a result," "consequently," "moreover," "Accordingly" and "therefore". 不要说废话，比如“Ummm, that's a very in-te-re-s-ti-ng question ...
The Introduction (template) Sentence One: State the Topic "The reading and the lecture are both about ________" Sentence Two: The author's arguement "The author of the article feels that ________" "The author of the article provides three theories about ________" Sentence Three: The transition "The lecturer disputes the claims made in the arcticle." Sentence Four: The lecturer's argument "His/Her position is that _______ ...
According to the letter, the author thinks that acquiring a new sculpture seems a bad idea for the university. This is because the university's financial condition is poor and the sculpture is so large that it'll take up all the green space in front of the campus center. The woman disagrees with that opinion for 2 reasons. To begin with, she points out that a donor will pay the bill for most of the sculpture, so the school does ...
To begin with, there are many more ways for students to learn nowadays, which means they are less reliant on teachers than in the past. A few years ago, children could only acquire new skills by going to school and attending classes, so they respected their teachers a lot. In contrast, now they can easily use technology to learn independently. My personal experience is a compelling illustration of this. For the past five ...
狀語前置（舉例） Clearly, this is a positive alternative for motivated parents and their children. Obviously, this is a positive alternative for motivated parents and their children. Without doubt, computer have changed the way individuals interact with each other in American society. Given the choice, he would sacrifice his high-paying job in exchange for more leisure time. Given the chance, I'd spend all day ...
transition 過渡；轉變 tundra 苔原 slope 斜坡 dramatic 劇烈 shrubs 灌木叢 timberline 林木線 semiarid 半幹旱的 steppe 幹草原 moisture 水分 tropic 回歸線；熱帶，熱帶地區 tropics 熱帶地區 deciduous 落葉的；短暫的 birch 樺樹 twist 扭曲 deform 變形 latitudes 緯度；緯度地區 attain 達到 ridges 山脊 whereas 然而 valley 溪谷 duration 持續時間 velocity 速率 soil 土壤 favorable 有利 ...
The cinema did not emerge as a form of mass consumption until its technology evolved from the initial "peepshow" format to the point where images were projected on a screen in a darkened theater. In the peepshow format, a film was viewed through a small opening in a machine that was created for that purpose. Thomas Edison's peepshow device, the Kinetoscope, was introduced to the public ...
It should be obvious that cetaceans-whales, porpoises, and dolphins-are mammals. They breathe through lungs, not through gills, and give birth to live young. Their streamlined bodies, the absence of hind legs, and the presence of a fluke and blowhole cannot disguise their affinities with land dwelling mammals. However, unlike the cases of sea otters and pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses, whose ...
The deserts, which already occupy approximately a fourth of the Earth’s land surface, have in recent decades been increasing at an alarming pace. The expansion of desert—like conditions into areas where they did not previously exist is called desertification. It has been estimated that an additional one-fourth of the Earth's land surface is threatened by this process ...
Groundwater is the word used to describe water that saturates the ground, filling all the available spaces. By far the most abundant type of groundwater is meteoric water; this is the groundwater that circulates as part of the water cycle. Ordinary meteoric water is water that has soaked into the ground from the surface, from precipitation (rain and snow) and from lakes and streams. There it remains ...
In seeking to describe the origins of theater, one must rely primarily on speculation, since there is little concrete evidence on which to draw. The most widely accepted theory, championed by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, envisions theater as emerging out of myth and ritual. The process perceived by these anthropologists may be summarized briefly. During the early stages of ...
The transition from forest to treeless tundra on a mountain slope is often a dramatic one. Within a vertical distance of just a few tens of meters, trees disappear as a life-form and are replaced by low shrubs, herbs, and grasses. This rapid zone of transition is called the upper timberline or tree line. In many semiarid areas there is also a lower timberline where the forest passes into steppe or desert at its lower edge, usually ...
Superman Returns (2006) 00:11:25 - In essence, he gave us technology. He gave us power. 00:11:28 - So we're stealing fire? In the Arctic. 00:11:31 - Actually, sort of. You see, whoever controls technology controls the world. The Lone Ranger (2013) 01:59:50 - In essence, gentlemen, you work for me. 01:59:53 - Have you lost your mind? Thank You for Smoking (2006) 01:26:04 - But, in essence, aren't you changing history ...
Are the volcanoes on Venus still active? Well, that's an interesting question. There is still some discussion on that point. But here's what we do now. First, the level of sulfur dioxide gas above Venus's clouds shows large and very frequent fluctuations. It's quite possible that these ...
Well, one of the most interesting features on the surface are in fact the shield volcanoes. Shield volcanoes formed when magma comes out of the ground in the same spot over and over again. Remember, magma is hot molten rock that's underground, and it is called lava when it ...
Dictation is very important, because the quality of listening almost determines the scores of the last three parts.（Listening、Speaking、Writing） Today, I deliberately simulated the TOEFL test and listened to the last lecture. Because of an unknown word "glacier", I could hardly understand the whole lecture, then the answers I chose were all wrong, and my mood broke down ...
这个geology class难度并不小，特别是其中有一条，“什么促成/促进了冰川化”，教授提供的一条线索是一个假设，太阳可能会时不时的温度变小，同时一个更重要的原因是750 million years ago，大多数板块都是在赤道的，而且是整块的、裸露的，这才是真正的促因——裸露的岩石风化，硅酸盐和二氧化碳结合生成碳酸钙沉淀到海底。这样彻底导致了温室效应减弱，冰川的扩展更加肆无忌惮...... 有关于750 million years ago 整个地球都是覆盖在冰川 ...
新闻学的lecture，教授重点说了如何让报纸提高销量的方法。在过去的几十年的研究中，研究者发现，人们更愿意购买本地报纸中包含普通人的story，而不是office或police有关的，这是他们的兴趣内容。教授还提到，人们不太喜欢natural disaster相关的内容，这一类的内容不怎么令人感兴趣。男学生质疑，报社为了提高销量不应该去做一些本职的事情吗？比如报道符合公共利益的重大事件？教授回答，这些内容会被报道出来in a nutshell ...
This marine biology class 提到了baleen whales 须鲸，这种鲸鱼有一种冬天向南迁移的习性。海洋生物学家们并没有figure out why，所以提出了一些假说。其中最著名的一个假说是为了去赤道保存体力，因为温暖的水温能够减缓他们fat消耗。You know，鲸鱼在过冬之前一般会贮存特别多的脂肪用来过冬，而去赤道的迁徙过程中虽然理论上会耗费大量体力，但是这对于鲸鱼来说很容易。浮游生物不是它们的主要理由，因为赤道的海洋温度不够冷 ...
Who was right? Many ecologists have made precise measurements, designed to test the assumptions of both the Clements and Gleason models. For instance, along mountain slopes, does one life zone, or habitat type, grade sharply or gradually into another? If the divisions are sharp, perhaps the reason is that the community is so well integrated, so holistic, so like Clements viewed it ...
The human population on Earth has grown to the point that it is having an effect on Earth's atmosphere and ecosystems. Burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, urbanization, cultivation of rice and cattle, and the manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs) for propellants and ...
spectroscopy 光谱学 是对天文学有卓越的帮助的。在没有这个光谱学测定元素的方法之前，天文学未曾出现过bloom，知道spectroscopy发展了之后，才有了天文学的发展。这就像1+1>2的效应，可以理解为协同效应Synergy Effects，光学的发展促进了天文学对星球组成探索的一大跃进，就像之前通过放射性宇宙粒子的测定方法能够探知古墓穴的空间大小，为考古学提供了有效且高效的方法。 为什么说光谱学非常重要，举一个最基本的例子 ...
Chauvet Cave 乔维特洞穴 大概是目前发现的在法国地区的最古老的洞穴，它的古老程度甚至超过了Altamira 和 Lascaux，这个洞穴最有意思的是它的壁画。它的壁画的杰作程度甚至能让你以为它根本就不属于旧石器时代的那种原始时代。该洞穴的壁画大型凶猛陆上动物居多，唯独没有鸟类、鱼、蛇之类的，考古学家都对这种精确得只画凶猛的犀牛、狮子、猛犸象之类的这种行为表示好奇。 另外，这个洞穴其实并不住人 ...
一个学生来办公室找教授，相当志愿者。这个志愿的活动是考古学的活动，而且考古的地点就在校园，这个校园曾经就是一个考古的发掘现场，这里的barn和farm houses建立于1700s年。而且现在的时间是学期中旬，教授也并不希望学生去一趟很远的旅途去考古，所以在校园进行。这里的志愿活动是不需要任何experience的，所以学生不用担心。另外，频率大概是一周3~4小时，可能有额外的学分，也或许能写paper，这些内容教授没有直接承诺 ...
本lecture讲述了有关film的制作history，主要提到Jean Painlevé这个人。Jean Painlevé在很多圈子都受到尊敬，因为他是先驱者，在1920s那个还没有明确分类film categories的年代，他的风格非常特别，一开始是基于fact的，慢慢地变得fictional了，然后他的影片正常是那种混合状态的，你无法把它归类为哪种影片。但是这个Jean Painlevé远没有Jacques Cousteau出名，因为他的制片风格大抵是不符合当时大众的期望。而Jacques Cousteau是 ...
In the lecture, the professor talks about two ways animals may use to maintain group unity. There are two key points. The first key point is using what is called threatening display behavior. Take baboons for example. When two baboons find some fruit and both of them want ...
The big bear cookies sell much better than its competitors because the company successfullyapplied image advertising. The company uses the big bear character in the cookies' boxes and Tvcommercials. Also, the cookies themseves are shaped like the character. In the TV ...
According to the passage, a student suggests that the school should build a parking lot for the humanity building, saying that street parking is not enough for students' need and the wooded area behind the building can be used to build the parking lot. The woman in the ...
I disagree with the idea that 18-year-olds are mature enough to vote. (2/7.5pt) I feel this way for two reasons. (1.5/7.5pt) First, for most 18-year-olds, they haven't started college, which means they haven't started a real adult life. To be specific, lt is not until college do we begin to get ourselves exposed to a diverse culture. We started to learn expertise and form our values of the world in college ...
本lecture介绍了小行星带是如何被发现的。professor通过列举一些数字以及一些规律来说明了Bode's law，并引申用Bode's law发现了天王星、谷神星，以及小行星带。Planet和asteroid的本质的区别还是大小问题，天文学上，先是发现了像金星、水星、火星这样的行星，然后随着telescope的进步而发现了些微弱的、不能称之为Planet的天体，于是赐名asteroid。而由于Bode's law的可行性，天文学家们又发现了小行星带 ...
这个对话主要还是两个going to be teacher的学生的对话，估计目前的状态在研究生，女生说了她要拿master degree，所有他们作为同期生，现在的身份应该是under graduate。他们都有谈到选课的情况，男生提到了一个诗歌的club，他希望女生参加，但很遗憾，sunday night她要doing homework，没空。而这个club的活动一般都是每个月的最后一个星期天，由学生或professor来read some poems ...